In many countries,eating insects does not cause any surprise,and how tasty they seem to be to a large extent of the cultures.Analyzes of these edible insects have shown that there are large variations in their composition and nutritional values,so thare are differences in terms of the species of insects,the degree of ther development,and even with regard to their diet.
Insects are generally known to contain many proteins,and locusts and crickets (Orthoptera) are distinguished by this.Cabbages that provide the largest amount of protein are locusts called chaplines from Mexico,where the proportion of proteins can be as high as 77.13%.
Interestingly,their share of protein is much higher than the plants that we usually eat,such as corn,beans or alfalfa,and usually eat along with gumacamola sauce and tortillas.Collecting these locusts from agricultural fields instead of using pesticides would not only help controlling them as intruders and reduce contamination of soil and water,but could provide an additional source of food and yield.
These insect larvae known as red palm poppies are widely consumed in the countries of America (Rhinchophorus palmarum), the southeastern regions of Asia (Rhinchophorus ferrugineus) and the tropical regions of Africa (Rhinchophours phoenicis). African palm caviar larvae contain up to 69.78% fat. As they cook in their own fat,they do not need any extra oil in their preparation,and they often eat and drink. Fats are the second main ingredient of insects, and in food they represent the largest source of energy.
Of all foods derived from animals feeding humans in eastern Paraguay, these larvae are the best source of erergy, even better than hony, which is why they are compared with natural energy tiles. Unsaturated fatty acids are also highly represented in these edible insects, and they contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids ( omega – 6 and omega – 3) than in chicken or fish.
Rhinchophorus phenicis is a speciea that is particularly rich in these polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in addition it contains linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids, that is, two essential fatty acids especially important for the healthy development of children and infants.
Some natives in the southeastern regions of Asia have already begun to grow palm larvae, such as the already mentioned species called Rhinchophorus ferrugineus which grows on sago palm trees. In these trees, larvae are allowed to grow freely instead of destroying them, and after 1 – 3 months on one trunk, up to 100 larvae can be found. In Thailand, there has already been an easier way of cultivating larvae in the interior. As for the texture and taste of these larvae, they are described as creamy when they are consumed fresh and sweet when fried.
Most edible insects have an equal or greter amount of beef iron, which has an iron content of 6 mg per 100g beef, but the type of caterpillars under the name Imbrasia White contains an iron content of as much as 31 – 77 mg per 100g of caterpillar. This type of caterpillars is one of the most widely consumed and economically profitable edible insects in South Africa, and could play a major role in addressing the problem of iron deficiency in food.
According to the World Health Organization, iron deficiency is the most widespread and most commonly the world’s nutritional disorder. In developing countries, even about half of women in pregnancy and about 40% of pre-school children are believed to be anemic, which is due to the lack of iron in the diet.
The previous attempts to breed the caterpillars for nutrion have had positive results, but before they can be used more widely, many problems must be solved, such as susceptibility to viral and bacterial diseases.
These worms are actually larvae of insect flour, and for western nutrition and mass production, they are interesting because their total nutritional value is comparable to beef. In addition, this is endemic species in temperate climates such as the climate in Europe, and their massive farming in the pet industry and bird feeding has already begun.
Several companies that produce these worms in the Netherlands already use their knowledge and facilities to start mass production of worms for human consumption.
It is important to note that the ecological footprint of worm production is much lower than that for the production of beef, but also of those for the production of milk, chicken and pork.
Although worm production requires roughly the same amount of energy, fewer greenhouse gases are emitted ( e.g., less methane is relesed than when grown cows) , and requires a much smaller surface area and less water consumption.
Worms can be processes without difficulty in food, so the preliminary results of the experiments conducted at the Wageningen University show that the texture and taste of processed food containing worms was well receved by western consumers.
The flies of the fly under the name Hermetia illucens are excellent for feeding animals, but also in the diet of humans. Dried larvae of these flies contain 42% protein and 35% fat, while living larvae consist of 44% dry matter, which can be stored for a long time without difficulty.
It was found that when larvae are used as a component in the diet, they support healthy growth in different animals, e.g. chickens, pigs, Californian trout and catfish.
When these larvae are used to feed the animals, the breeding and use of larvae can help reduce the amount of animal feces, unpleasant odors, and pollutant potenial by 50 to 60%, and in addition, the number of harmful bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and salmonella. Regarding the breeding site of these larvae, there is a possibility of their breeding in both the outer and inner areas.